Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications was established in the year of 1958, with a history of more than 60 years including its original institution which could be traced back to the training class for the cadres of the General Postal Administrations during the wartime in 1942. In July of 1945, it was expanded into “the Postal School in Wartime”. Thereafter, it had once been called the Posts and Telecommunications Training Department of Shandong University, and Shandong Postal School as well. Its location had been transferred in a range of many places in the southern part of Shandong, among which were Linyi and Wulian. Zhao Zhigang, Chief of the Wartime General Postal Administration then, served concurrently as the head teacher of the training class and the principal of the school in succession during the period from 1942 to 1947. (After the foundation of the People's Republic of China, Mr. Zhao held the position of Vice Minister of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications for a long time, and was in charge of the postal education.) In 1948, it was formally named East China Posts and Telecommunications School at Yidu(now called Qingzhou), and was affiliated to East China General Administration of Posts and Telecommunications. It moved south then from Jinan, Shandong to the city of Nanjing in the August of 1949. During the eight years of time, i.e. from 1942 to 1949, before the founding of P.R.C., the school had fostered a collection of backbone talents in the field of Posts and Telecommunications for the revolutionary war.
In December 1950, it was enlarged into Nanjing School of Posts and Telecommunications, under the direct control of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. The school also ran classes for secondary and high vocational or technical specialties. From November 1951 to April 1953, under the decision of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, the school came to be in the guidance of East China Administration of Posts and Telecommunications and was renamed East China School of Posts and Telecommunications. From the year of 1954 to July, 1958, it has developed to two parts: Nanjing School of Telecommunications and Nanjing Postal School. During the decade from 1948 to 1958, the major leaders of the school included Shengtong, Geng Guoxing, Cao Danhui (Chief of East China Bureau of Posts and Telecommunications and the principal to this school), Liu Niantian, Li Xuefeng, Shen Yili, Yujiang, and Liu Weiyi, and etc..
In August 1958，with the approval of the national government, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications dictated in the 60th note of (58) school for managerial cadres that“ Nanjing Telecommunications School will be upgraded into an institute of higher learning and will be renamed the Nanjing Institute of Posts and Telecommunications in August this year. The institute will set up three specialties including radio communications and broadcasting, telegraph and telephone communications, postal organizations and programs; the same as its technical school, with an ultimate capacity of 4000 students. In order to tap the potential and save the investment, Nanjing Postal School will be annexed by Nanjing Institute of Posts and Telecommunications.” In September that same year, 194 five-year undergraduates majoring in both the radio communications and telegraph and telephone communications were enrolled in the college, together with another 48 technical students of telecommunications. From May of 1972 to February of 1973, the college had once been renamed as Nanjing Telecommunications and Engineering Institute. The major leaders of this school after its setting up include Qin Huali, Qin Jianqiu, Guo Xiangyun, Wang Hongbin, and Zheng Weiwei.
Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications is a key university administered by the Ministry of Posts (renamed as the Ministry of Information Industry since March, 1999). After the reform of the leadership system of national universities in February of 2000, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications starts to be joint-administered by both the central and the provincial government, with the provincial government playing the principle role.
Through the investigation of Jiangsu Provincial Government and by the permission of the State Ministry of Education, Nanjing Institute of Posts and Telecommunications was renamed Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications in April, 2005.